The effect of HIV on the body

Posted: April 14, 2013 in Uncategorized

Published Paper Assignment

Reference: Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 2012. “HIV and Malnutrition: Effects on Immune System.”  Assessed January 02, 2012.


This article dealt with individuals who acquired the Human Immunodifficiency Virus also known as HIV and the effect which their diet has on their ability to fight the disease. Also how their diet can slow down the process of HIV transforming into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome which is also known as AIDS.

            It was pointed out that a few specific nutrients were essential to fight the virus. These were omega-3 fatty acids, Vitamins A, B group and C and Minerals such as Zinc, Selenium and Copper. These nutrients are all precursors towards different molecules which are used to boost an individual’s immune system and fight the virus. People suffer from malnutrition when they have HIV because the virus causes a reduction of appetite due to the difficulty in ingesting food as a cause of and infection to the throat.

            HIV and nutrition go hand in hand because when you become infected you nutrition is what helps you to fight the virus and not suffer from the painstaking side effects which would have taken place if you were malnourished. This just goes to show how important a well-balanced diet is in life and why we should always take care of our bodies by adding the right nutrients to our systems.


Publish Paper Assignment

Reference: Rebecca Summers. 2013. “Red meat boosts gut bugs that raise heart disease risk.” Accessed April 07, 2013.


Meats are made up of several nutrients, some of which serve different purposes in the body. This article however investigated a specific nutrient in red meat known as carnitine. This nutrient was tested on rats and it was said that in excess it had a part to play in the development of atherosclerosis, which is the thickening of artery walls.

            Scientist have been investigating the phenomenon and it was deduced that when carnitine enters the diet it is broken down into trimethylamine (TMA) in the stomach. It is then further broken down into trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) in the liver where it exits the body in urea. The TMAO however increases the intake of cholesterols and prevents white blood cells from destroying them. So it can be said that wen red meat is consumed excessively this is what forms a build up of plaque within the arteries there by causing atherosclerosis.

            On the other hand it is said that carnitine isn’t all bad. It is used to transport fuel to the mitochondria in the form of fatty acids within a cell to produce its energy. However, the body produces its own carnitine and when any is added to the diet in excess through supplements or things like energy drinks it can cause cardiovascular diseases.

            Doctors are awaiting diagnostic tests to know if TMAO levels should be paid attention to. They are investigating if TMAO is really a precursor for atherosclerosis.

This video is very informative as the doctor went through the whole of glycolysis step by step explaining which enzyme is used at each stage. All ten of the reactions and enzymes were named and using the molecule’s structure shows where each component is either added to, removed from or rearranged in the structure.
However, it was observed that when he spoke about Phosphofructokinase he did not specify and say Phosphofructokinase-1. if this is not stated then the wrong kinase enzyme will be used and your understanding of the glycolysis pathway would not be fully accurate. In other steps in the pathway he either used different words or shortened the words. Such examples are:
1) Phosphoglucose isomerase instead of Phosphohexose isomerase
2) Triphosphate isomerase instead of Triosephosphate isomerase
3) Phosphoglyceromutase instead of phosphoglyceratemutase

Also instead of saying Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase he used Glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase.
However i did learn something new that 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is a precursor to 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate which regulates hemoglobin’s affinity of oxygen in our red blood cells.

Video  —  Posted: April 13, 2013 in Uncategorized

This video is basically enzymes for dummies. If throughout the semester you haven’t quite gotten a grip on it look at this video. If after this video you still don’t understand then its best you stop going to school.
In the video it was said that enzymes are proteins which catalyse metabolic reactions to produce products from a given substrate. When enzymes possess a complementary shape for the substrate to bind to it it is considered to follow the lock and key model. However, for the induced fit model the enzyme changes shape to accommodate the substrate.
It was also stated that enzymes enable metabolic processes to proceed more rapidly at room temperature by providing and alternative pathway of lower activation energy. The example used to illustrate this was the use of Carbonic anhydrase to catalyse the reaction between Carbon dioxide and water. it speeds up the reaction TEN MILLION times faster then if the reaction were to happen on its own.
Finally it was explained that when a similar shaped molecule competes for the active site in the protein and reduces substrate activity it is known as Competitive inhibition. When a molecule binds to a remote part of the enzyme preventing substrate binding by altering the shape of the protein it is said to undergo Non-competitive allosteric inhibition.

What was presented was illustrated in a very simple but effective manner which i can say was excellent. However it should have been stated that an enzyme can also be RNA even though it is not very common. Mixed and Uncompetitive inhibition were missing from the video to complete the different reversible inhibitions.
All in all i can say that the video was till well done and very educational.

Video  —  Posted: April 13, 2013 in Uncategorized

Multiple Choice Quiz

Posted: April 6, 2013 in Uncategorized

1)      When excess glucose present in the body is converted to glycogen it is stored in the:

  1. Bones.
  2. Muscles.
  3. Eyes.
  4. Liver.
  5. Kidneys.

Select the correct multiple answer using ONE of the keys A, B, C, D or E as follows:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct
  2. 1 and 3 are correct
  3. 2 and 4 are correct
  4. only 4 is correct
  5. all are correct


2)      Which enzyme(s) are used in the first stage of glycolysis:

  1. Aldolase
  2. Hexokinase
  3. Phosphohexose Isomerase
  4. Phosphoglyceratekinase
  5. Enolase

Select the correct multiple answer using ONE of the keys A, B, C, D or E as follows:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct
  2. 1 and 3 are correct
  3. 2 and 4 are correct
  4. only 4 is correct
  5. all are correct

<a href=" Wordle: Carbohydrates“>

Image  —  Posted: April 2, 2013 in Uncategorized

First few weeks of Biochem

Posted: February 19, 2013 in Uncategorized

Soooooooo………..  to be honest i was wayyyyyyyy out of it for the 1st few weeks of school. Just going to class each day and going home. Until we started to do the quizzes in class. DAMNNNNNNNNN those stuff really helped me to get back on track and better understand my work. Also there are the tutorials which are competitive but fun (once you know your work lol). All in all i can say that my biochem experience has been perfect so far. Loving this course. JM is a boss!!!! Nuff said